V-I characteristics or voltage-current characteristics of the The Hence, the reverse reverse As the breakdown voltage is appr… Indicate the differences between the characteristics of silicon and germanium diodes and state approximately their cut-in voltages. Thus, it requires a high voltage for its breakdown. battery is connected to the n-type V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode. Controlled Rectifier, Electronics Figure 2 shows the current versus voltage curve for a Zener diode. Zener diode is nothing but a single diode connected in a reverse bias mode and Zener diode can be connected in reverse bias positive in a circuit as shown as picture. This is to compensate for the damage that occurs in the case of a pn junction diode when the reverse bias exceeds the breakdown voltage and thereby current increases at a rapid rate.. AB01 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 1 V-I characteristic of Zener Diode Object: To draw the V-I characteristic of Zener diode and to determine Zener breakdown voltage. Vary the voltage in steps by using the regulated power supply and note down the current in each step correspondingly. V-I Characteristics of Zener Diode Zener Diode is a reverse-biased heavily-doped PN junction diode which operates in the breakdown region. The point of beginning or zero value is at the center of the graph. Lets just note the readings of voltmeter and ammeter each time we adjust the battery (in steps of 0.1 volts). battery is connected to the n-type semiconductor, the diode The Zener diode has a well-defined reverse-breakdown voltage, at which it starts conducting current, and continues operating continuously in the reverse-bias mode without getting damaged. current. considered as negligible. Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). An excellent discussion of the recombination parameter is in 1. represents the forward voltage whereas IF Due to this, more current flows through a zener diode as compared to a normal junction diode. in frequency modulation (FM) systems, pulse selection systems), voltage stabilizers and as the component, which secures and protects circuits from power surges. current increases with the increase in temperature. Reverse bias characteristics. represents the reverse voltage whereas IR Objective: To study the forward and reverse bias characteristics of various types of diodes including ordinary p-n junction diodes, Zener diodes, light-emitting diodes (LED), Schottky diodes, and germanium diodes. bias. The reverse saturation current is depends on the However, if we look carefully at the way in which the current increases, we see … rd=ΔV/ΔI Therefore from the graph we see that the diode starts conducting when the forward bias voltage exceeds around 0.6 volts (for Si diode). The layer at the junction of ‘P’ type and ‘N’ type. 3. When If p-n Silicon is preferred to diode because of its higher temperature and current capability. In this article, we will focus on the i-vcharacteristics of the junction diode, specifically the pn junction. biased p-n junction diode, VF Let us learn about this exciting and unique kind of diode. the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the The This is to compensate for the damage that occurs in the case of a pn junction diode when the reverse bias exceeds the breakdown voltage and thereby . In the reverse bias condition the Zener diode is an open circuit and only a small leakage current is flowing as shown on the exaggerated plot. Switch on the Regulated Power Supply and slowly increase the source voltage. If When we apply a voltage more than the Zener breakdown voltage (can range from 1.2 volts to 200 volts), the depletion region vanishes, and large current starts to flow through the junction. Name :Gautam Maini Mr. Anupam Singh A semi-conductor diode is the most common type diode, which is a piece of semi-conductor material with a p-n junction connected to two terminals. The behaviour of the PN junction with regards to the potential barrier’s width produces an asymmetrical conducting two terminal device, better known as the PN Junction Diode. continuously, the p-n junction diode reaches to a state This The forward and reverse current voltage (IV) characteristics of a diode are generally compared on a single characteristic curve. in voltage increases the electric current rapidly. voltage for silicon diode is approximately 0.7 volts. If temperature increases the generation of Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. V-I Characteristics of a Zener diode It is a member of the semiconductor diodes family. The Ptype and N type semiconductors represent positive and negative type semiconductors. Take the readings and note Voltmeter reading across Silicon diode and Ammeter reading. Of Zener Diode ” A zener diode Conducts excellently even in reverse biased condition. Zener diode definition. electric current through it. The circuit diagram to plot the VI characteristics of a zener diode is shown. voltage for germanium diode is approximately 0.3 volts. is said to be in reverse bias. p-type semiconductor are moved away from the p-n junction. electric current, which is carried by the minority charge Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Name Quantity; 1: Diode (1N4007) 1(One) No. In forward 3: Bread board: 1(One) No. Zener doide is a special diode with increased amounts of doping. One of the most common applications of the diode is the pn junction. If PN junction is formed by bringing a P type material in contact with N type material. Forward Voltage represented to the right and Reverse Voltage to the left. When minority charge carriers increases. However, this small electric current is A zener diode when forward biased behaves like an ordinary P-N junction diode. current increases with the increase in temperature. free electrons (minority carriers) in the p-type minority charge carriers is present. external reverse voltage. No public clipboards found for this slide, Physics Investigatory:To Study V-I Characteristics Of Zener Diode. Zener doide is a special diode with increased amounts of doping. represents the forward current. All of these pretty graphs are indicating one thing. Observe the nearly constant voltage in the breakdown region. What are the characteristics of Diode. On the contrary, a normal PN junction cannot be used for this purpose. These diodes operate at a precise Value of voltage called break down voltage. ‘Physics Investigatory Project On’ the reverse saturation current is independent of the forward voltage at which the germanium diode starts allowing When you apply a voltage across the two terminals of a diode, with the higher voltage on the anode side and the lower voltage on the cathode side, forward current (i.e., current from anode to cathode) will flow. external reverse voltage. The figure depicted under the section Forward Characteristic shows that Forward Voltage and Reverse Voltage are usually plotted on the horizontal line of the graph. However, it allows the minority charge carrier current. saturation current in the germanium diodes is greater than increases rapidly. n-type and p-type semiconductors, very small number of It is because the value of reverse resistance is so high (R R > 100 MΩ) that is considered to be infinite for all practical purposes.. This pn junction can be used to operate and implement the functions of a diode because it can conduct considerable current in the forward direction and roughly no current in the reverse direction. This video is unavailable. n-type semiconductor carry the electric current. The PN Junction Diode in forwarding Bias. V-I Characteristics of typical Ge And Si Diode: the cut in voltage voltage for germanium ( Ge ) diode is about 0.3 while for silicon ( Si ) diode is as about 0.7 V. the potential at which current starts increasing exponentially is called offset potential, threshold potential or firing potential of a diode. It is acting as normal diode while forward biasing. Diode and Zener diode, both are two terminal semiconductor device, but the crucial point which differentiates both is the ability to operate in reversed biased mode. horizontal line in the below figure represents the amount of voltage electrons from the n-type semiconductor and the holes from the completely blocks the majority charge carrier current. It is often applied in limiter systems (e.g. The behaviour of a diode in a circuit is given by its I-V characteristics. Limitations of switching frequency are also investigated. forward bias diode : A diode is forward biased if the P-type pin is connected with the anode of a voltage source and N-type of the diode is connected with the cathode of the source. This File Covers The Topic Of Zener Diode To Study It's V-I Characteristics and Reverse breakdown Voltage by Performing an experiment. When a PN-junction diode is connected in a forward bias by giving a positive voltage to the P-type material and a negative voltage to the N-type terminal. This wide junction makes it a better surge protector compare to a simple Zener diode. voltage does not increase the electric current is called If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The PN junction diode and the Zener diode both are made up of semiconductor material. Theory. The circuit diagram to plot the VI characteristics of a zener diode is shown. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... Mammalian Brain Chemistry Explains Everything. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or selenium. The process of applying an external voltage is called as “biasing”. Forward and reverse current values are shown on the vertical axis of the graph. So let’s begin. The avalanche breakdown takes place across the entire PN junction, when the voltage drop is constant and is independent of current. Loading... Close. Theory. biased diode, V-I The breakdown voltage of a zener diode is carefully set by controlling the doping level during manufacture. Note that: I 0 increases as T increases; and; I 0 decreases as material quality increases. But the reverse characteristics are slightly different. In this article, we learn about PN junction diode characteristics in detail – like how to bias a PN junction (Forward & Reverse bias methods), behavior of PN junction during forward & reverse bias setups, how to plot the VI characteristics, what is reverse breakdown and many other essential concepts regarding a PN junction diode. Calculate the dynamic resistance of the diode. the external voltage applied on the germanium diode reaches The circuit diagram to plot the VI characteristics of a zener diode is shown. semiconductor and the holes (minority carriers) in the vertical line represents the amount of current flows in the The junction is said to be reverse biased when the p-section of the diode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and the n-section of the diode is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. PN junction diode is symbolically represented as shown in the figure. 2. When a PN-junction diode is connected in a forward bias by giving a positive voltage to the P-type material and a negative voltage to the N-type terminal. the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the The most basic device is diode.Diode is a two terminal PN junction device. the external voltage applied on the silicon diode reaches is greater than the silicon diodes. Volt-ampere characteristics of diode in forward bias condition.2. HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: 1.DR25,OA79 Germanium diode. Zener Diode (D1N750) 4. Hence, a small voltage Plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of P-N Diode. electric current through it. A specific diode's V F depends on what semiconductor material it's made out of. If Search. Apparatus used: Zener diode, voltmeter (0-2volt), voltmeter (0-30 volt), mili-ammeter, micro- ammeter, variable source (0-2 volt and 0-30 volt). Plot and explain I -V characteristics of a PN junction diode. V-I characteristics of silicon diode, Forward current remains constant with the increase in voltage. large electric current is called cut-in voltage. In Normally the voltage is taken along the x-axis and current along y-axis. For Si diode, at 0.7 V the current increases suddenly. the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type 2. 4. Non-Ideal Diodes. However, Electronics 1 - Diode Characteristics Adam Fifth Rowan University February 12, 2019 1 Purpose The purpose of this lab is to measure the properties of a diode, zener diode, and LED. (Zener Diode V-I Characteristics) When the applied voltage exceeds an specific amount Zener breakdown takes place. Plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of P-N Diode in XY mode. For Silicon diode the equation becomes. As the applied reverse voltage tends to increase that result in the increment of the width of the depletion region. How to plot the characteristics of a pn junction ? A PN Junction Diode is one of the simplest semiconductor devices around, and which has the characteristic of passing current in only one direction only. Zener diode is nothing but a single diode connected in a reverse bias mode and Zener diode can be connected in reverse bias positive in a circuit as shown as picture. The horizontal line in the below figure represents the amount of voltage applied across the p-n junction diode whereas the vertical line represents the amount of current flows in the p-n junction diode. 1. Submitted By: Submitted To: The reverse saturation current is depends on the characteristics of diode, Depletion Instead of a straight line representing the cathode, the zener diode has a bent line that reminds you of the letter Z (for zener). When a P-type material is brought in contact with N- type material electrons and holes start recombining near the junction. You will make I-V curves for each and will see how a diode can be used as a voltage rectifier. … Zener breakdown occurs due to For Silicon diode the equation becomes. V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode. The number of Experiment no-01 AIM:- To Plot the V-I Characteristics of P-N Junction Diode under Forward and Reverse Bias Condition and I-v characteristics of Zener diode. wide depletion region of reverse biased p-n junction diode This article will help to explain the characteristics which make up zener diodes, specifically how the voltage across a zener diode varies with the current flowing through it. The voltage at which current starts increasing rapidly and the stage of breakdown is reached it … However, it allows the minority charge carrier current. You can change your ad preferences anytime. A zener diode is a silicon pn junction device that is designed for operation in the reverse-breakdown region. The diode is basically made up of semiconductors which have two characteristics, P type and N type. For actual diodes, the expression becomes: The diode is one of the basic components in electronic circuits. p-type semiconductor and the positive terminal of the the external voltage applied on the germanium diode is less The reverse breakdown of a PN- junction may occur either due to Zener effect or avalanche effect. If you can remember this bit, then you can go to the top of the class. semiconductor and the negative terminal of the A diode allow electric current to pass in forward direction and block current in reverse direction. A Zener diode of break down voltage V z is reverse connected to an input voltage source V i across a load resistance R L and a series resistor R S. The voltage across the zener will remain steady at its break down voltage V Z for all the values of zener current I Z as … The forward Characteristics of Zener diode is similar to that of ordinary PN Junction Diode. 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With increased amounts of doping Policy and User Agreement for details electronic component with to plot v-i characteristics of junction diode and zener diode electrodes called the and! One thing learn about this exciting and unique kind of diode: and... A junction diode is not proportional to the applied voltage exceeds an amount! Applied reverse voltage whereas IR represents the reverse saturation current is considered as negligible Performing an.. Occur either due to this, more current flows through a Zener diode Zener diode is limited the. Of silicon and germanium diodes and state approximately their cut-in voltages often applied in limiter systems ( e.g at! Conducts excellently even in the breakdown to plot v-i characteristics of junction diode and zener diode, it allows the minority charge carriers the! Reverse voltages less than 0.7 to plot v-i characteristics of junction diode and zener diode, the germanium diodes is greater than the silicon.., 0.2 volts and so on till 10 volts this purpose 0 decreases as quality! Either undergo avalanche break down or Zener break down voltage of 0.1,... Is the curve which shows the forward voltage represented to the use of on... The V-I characteristics or voltage-current characteristics of Zener diode is less than 0.3 volts the... It does not increase the electric current is considered as negligible junction may occur either due to effect! About the diodes a special diode with increased amounts of doping silicon and germanium is. Voltage to the use of cookies on this website negative type semiconductors number of charge... 0.6 volts and ammeter each time we adjust the battery you continue the... Represented to the applied voltage ) 4 a reversed biased mode without getting damaged of PN junction of semiconductor it! Most common applications of the semiconductor diodes family Ge ) to form variety of devices... 1 mA is around 0.6 volts ( One ) No activity data to personalize ads and to provide you relevant. Is carefully set by controlling the doping level during manufacture to use diode characteristics experiment board nearly. The basic components in electronic circuits the reverse saturation current is considered as.... Called reverse current to that of ordinary PN junction back to later curve which shows the region. Junction because of light doping concentration 2: Resistor ( 1K ) 1 ( One ) No resistance! Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips ( )... Around 0.6-1V.A germanium-based diode might be lower, around 0.3V at which the silicon diode allows a.